2.4 STIPULATIONS OF FACT
The parties have agreed to certain facts that have been stated to you. You should therefore treat these facts as having been proved.
"Stipulations freely and voluntarily entered into in criminal trials are as binding and enforceable as those entered into in civil actions." United States v. Gwaltney, 790 F.2d 1378, 1386 (9th Cir.1986). "When parties have entered into stipulations as to material facts, those facts will be deemed to have been conclusively established." United States v. Houston, 547 F.2d 104, 107 (9th Cir.1976) (citations omitted). "[W]hen a stipulation to a crucial fact is entered into the record in open court in the presence of the defendant, and is agreed to by defendant’s acknowledged counsel, the trial court may reasonably assume that the defendant is aware of the content of the stipulation and agrees to it through his or her attorney. Unless a criminal defendant indicates objection at the time the stipulation is made, he or she is ordinarily bound by such stipulation." United States v. Ferreboeuf, 632 F.2d 832, 836 (9th Cir.1980). In any event, a trial judge need not make as probing an inquiry as is required by Fed. R. Crim. P. 11 when considering whether a defendant’s factual stipulation is knowing and voluntary. United States v. Miller, 588 F.2d 1256, 1263-64 (9th Cir.1978). See also Old Chief v. United States, 519 U.S. 172, 186 (1997) (acceptance of a stipulation regarding prior conviction may be appropriate even where government objects under Fed. R. Evid. 403);Jury Instructions Committee of the Ninth Circuit, A Manual on Jury Trial Procedures § 1.1.B (2013).