17.6 COPYRIGHT INFRINGEMENT—OWNERSHIP OF VALID COPYRIGHT—DEFINITION
(17 U.S.C. §§ 201–205)
The plaintiff is the owner of a valid copyright in [identify work[s] allegedly infringed] if the plaintiff proves by a preponderance of the evidence that:
1. the plaintiff’s work is original; and
2. the plaintiff [is the author or creator of the work] [received a transfer of the copyright] [received a transfer of the right to [specify right transferred, e.g., make derivative works, publicly perform the work, etc.]].
Under the Copyright Act, the party claiming infringement must show ownership. See Lamps Plus, Inc. v. Seattle Lighting Fixture Co., 345 F.3d 1140, 1144 (9th Cir.2003) ("Ownership of the copyright is ... always a threshold question." (quoting Topolos v. Caldewey,698 F.2d 991, 994 (9th Cir.1983))).