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4.7 Ratification

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A purported principal who ratifies the acts of someone who was purporting to act as the principal’s agent will be liable for the acts of that purported agent, provided that the principal made a conscious and affirmative decision to approve the relevant acts of the purported agent while in possession of full and complete knowledge of all relevant events.


See United States v. Alaska S. S. Co.,491 F.2d 1147, 1155 (9th Cir.1974) ("Ratification is the affirmance by a person of a prior act which did not bind him but which was done or professedly done on his account, whereby the act, as to some or all persons, is given effect as if originally authorized by him."); Witt v. United States, 319 F.2d 704, 710 (9th Cir.1963) ("The doctrine of ratification has as its foundation, knowledge of all the facts.") (citation and quotation marks omitted).