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2.13 Charts and Summaries in Evidence

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2.13 CHARTS AND SUMMARIES IN EVIDENCE

Certain charts and summaries [may be] [have been] received into evidence to illustrate information brought out in the trial. Charts and summaries are only as good as the underlying evidence that supports them. You should, therefore, give them only such weight as you think the underlying evidence deserves.

Comment

See United States v. Johnson, 594 F.2d 1253, 1254-55 (9th Cir.1979) (error to permit the introduction of a summary of evidence without the establishment of a foundation for the evidence). See also Fed. R. Evid. 1006. See also Jury Instructions Committee of the Ninth Circuit, A Manual on Jury Trial Procedures § 3.10A(1) (2013). This instruction may be unnecessary if there is no dispute as to the accuracy of the chart or summary.