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8.192 Persuading or Coercing to Travel to Engage in Prostitution

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The defendant is charged in [Count _______ of] the indictment with [persuading] [inducing] [enticing] [coercing] travel to engage in prostitution in violation of Section 2422 of Title 18 of the United States Code. In order for the defendant to be found guilty of that charge, the government must prove beyond a reasonable doubt:

[That, the defendant knowingly [persuaded] [induced] [enticed] [coerced] an individual to travel in [interstate] [foreign] commerce to engage in [prostitution] [in any sexual activity for which any person can be charged with a criminal offense].]


[First, the defendant knowingly attempted to [persuade] [induce] [entice] [coerce] an individual to travel in [interstate] [foreign] commerce to engage in [prostitution] [any sexual activity for which any person can be charged with a criminal offense]; and

Second, the defendant did something that was a substantial step toward the [specify act].

Mere preparation is not a substantial step toward committing the crime. To constitute a substantial step, a defendant’s act or actions must demonstrate that the crime will take place unless interrupted by independent circumstances.]


Both 18 U.S.C. § 2422(a) and (b) use the common terms "persuade," "induce," and "entice." Those terms "have plain and ordinary meanings within the statute, and [a] court [has] no obligation to provide further definitions." See United States v. Dhingra, 371 F.3d 557, 567 (9th Cir.2004) (Dhingra involved a prosecution under 18 U.S.C. § 2422(b)).

The fact that women desired to leave Russia and travel to the United States did not preclude the finding that defendant persuaded, induced, enticed or coerced them to do so. United States v. Rashkovski, 301 F.3d 1133, 1136–37 (9th Cir.2002). The statutory language does not require defendant to "have created out of whole cloth the women’s desire to go to the United States; it merely requires that he have convinced or influenced [them] to actually undergo the journey, or made the possibility more appealing." Id. "[I]t is the defendant’s intent that forms the basis for his criminal liability, not the victims’." Id. at 1137.

For an attempt to commit the crime, jurors do not need to agree unanimously as to which particular act or actions constituted a substantial step toward the commission of a crime. United States v. Hofus, 598 F.3d 1171, 1176 (9th Cir.2010).