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1.15 Questions to Witnesses by Jurors

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Whether to allow jurors to ask questions is a subject debated among judges. Many state courts have modified their past practice and now allow questions by jurors. If a judge decides to allow questions, the following instruction and procedure is suggested.


You will be allowed to propose written questions to witnesses after the lawyers have completed their questioning of each witness. You may propose questions in order to clarify the testimony, but you are not to express any opinion about the testimony or argue with a witness. If you propose any questions, remember that your role is that of a neutral fact finder, not an advocate.

Before I excuse each witness, I will offer you the opportunity to write out a question on a form provided by the court. Do not sign the question. I will review the question with the attorneys to determine if it is legally proper.

There are some proposed questions that I will not permit, or will not ask in the wording submitted by the juror. This might happen either due to the rules of evidence or other legal reasons, or because the question is expected to be answered later in the case. If I do not ask a proposed question, or if I rephrase it, do not speculate as to the reasons. Do not give undue weight to questions you or other jurors propose. You should evaluate the answers to those questions in the same manner you evaluate all of the other evidence.

By giving you the opportunity to propose questions, I am not requesting or suggesting that you do so. It will often be the case that a lawyer has not asked a question because it is legally objectionable or because a later witness may be addressing that subject.


In the event the court allows jurors to submit questions for witnesses the committee recommends that judges use the following procedures:

1. At the conclusion of each witness's testimony, the court asks if jurors have written questions, which are brought to the judge;

2. Outside the presence of the jury, counsel are given the opportunity to make objections to the question or to suggest modifications to the question, by passing the written question between counsel and the court during a side-bar conference or by excusing jurors to the jury room;

3. The judge asks the question of the witness;

4. Counsel are permitted to ask appropriate follow-up questions; and

5. The written questions are made part of the record.

Each court is encouraged to develop a form for juror use. The form makes it easier for the court to retain the question for inclusion in the court record.

The form should include the case name and number. Most of the form’s page should be set aside for the juror to use in writing the proposed question. A section should also be reserved for the court to use in noting the date and time when the question was proposed and noting whether the judge allowed the question to be asked, either as proposed or as revised. The form may also be used to provide jurors with additional information, or even just a reminder, about the procedures discussed in this instruction.