You are here

8.118 Attempted Kidnapping—Foreign Official or Official Guest

Printer-friendly version

8.118 ATTEMPTED KIDNAPPING—FOREIGN OFFICIAL OR OFFICIAL GUEST (18 U.S.C. § 1201(d))

The defendant is charged in [Count _______ of] the indictment with attempting to kidnap [a foreign official] [an official guest] [an internationally protected person] in violation of Section 1201(d) of Title 18 of the United States Code. In order for the defendant to be found guilty of that charge, the government must prove each of the following elements beyond a reasonable doubt:

First, the defendant intended to [seize] [confine] [kidnap] and hold [a foreign official] [an official guest] [an internationally protected person] for ransom, reward or other benefit; and

Second, the defendant did something that was a substantial step toward committing the crime.

Mere preparation is not a substantial step toward committing the crime. To constitute a substantial step, a defendant’s act or actions must demonstrate that the crime will take place unless interrupted by independent circumstances.

Comment

"Foreign official," "official guest," and "internationally protected person" are defined in 18 U.S.C. § 1116(b).

"[A] person may be convicted of an attempt to commit a crime even thought that person may have actually completed the crime." United States v. Rivera-Relle, 333 F.3d 914, 921 (9th Cir.2003).

"To constitute a substantial step, a defendant’s actions must cross the line between preparation and attempt by unequivocally demonstrating that the crime will take place unless interrupted by independent circumstances." United States v. Goetzke, 494 F.3d 1231, 1237 (9th Cir.2007). Jurors do not need to agree unanimously as to which particular act or actions constituted a substantial step toward the commission of a crime. United States v. Hofus, 598 F.3d 1171, 1176 (9th Cir.2010).