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8.75 Fraud in Connection With Identification Documents—Production

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8.75 FRAUD IN CONNECTION WITH IDENTIFICATION DOCUMENTSPRODUCTION (18 U.S.C. § 1028(a)(1))

The defendant is charged in [Count ______ of] the indictment with producing without legal authority [an identification document] [an authentication feature] [a false identification document] in violation of Section 1028(a)(1) of Title 18 of the United States Code. In order for the defendant to be found guilty of that charge, the government must prove each of the following elements beyond a reasonable doubt:

First, the defendant knowingly produced [an identification document] [an authentication feature] [a false identification document];

Second, the defendant produced the [identification document] [authentication feature] [false identification document] without lawful authority; and

[Third, the [identification document] [authentication feature] [false identification document] was or appeared to be issued by or under authority of [the United States] [specify issuing authority].]

or

[Third, the production of the [identification document] [authentication feature] [false identification document] was in or affected commerce between one state and [an]other state[s], or between a state of the United States and a foreign country.]

or

[Third, in the course of production, the [identification document] [authentication feature] [false identification document] was transported in the mail.]

Comment

The first and second elements are drawn from 18 U.S.C. § 1028(a)(2); the alternative third elements are drawn from 18 U.S.C. § 1028(c)(1), (c)(3)(A) and (c)(3)(B).

Section 1028(d) provides definitions for the terms: "identification document," "authentication feature," "false identification document," "issuing authority," and "produce."

Section 1028(b) provides for various enhanced statutory maximum penalties in certain circumstances such as when particular types of identification documents are involved or when their use occurs in connection with certain other criminal conduct. In the event that such enhanced penalties are charged, a special verdict form may need to be submitted to the jury regarding the presence or absence of such facts.

When a defendant presents false information to a government agent, it is unnecessary to show that the government agent who actually produced the identification document intended to commit identification fraud. United States v. Lee, 602 F.3d 974, 976 (9th Cir.2010).

Approved 12/2010