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8.45 Attempted Escape

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8.45 ATTEMPTED ESCAPE (18 U.S.C. § 751(a))

The defendant is charged in [Count _______ of] the indictment with attempted escape in violation of Section 751(a) of Title 18 of the United States Code. In order for the defendant to be found guilty of that charge, the government must prove each of the following elements beyond a reasonable doubt:

First, the defendant was in the custody of [specify custodian];

Second, the defendant was in custody by virtue of [specify reason for or type of custody];

Third, the defendant intended to escape from custody; and

Fourth, the defendant did something that was a substantial step toward committing the crime.

Mere preparation is not a substantial step toward committing the crime. To constitute a substantial step, a defendant’s act or actions must demonstrate that the crime will take place unless interrupted by independent circumstances.


See Comment to Instruction 8.44 (Escape from Custody).

Jurors do not need to agree unanimously as to which particular act or actions constituted a substantial step toward the commission of a crime. United States v. Hofus, 598 F.3d 1171, 1176 (9th Cir.2010).