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9.24 Controlled Substance—Attempted Distribution in or Near School

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9.24 CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE—ATTEMPTED DISTRIBUTION IN OR NEAR SCHOOL (21 U.S.C. §§ 841(a)(1), 846 and 860)

The defendant is charged in [Count _______ of] the indictment with attempted distribution of [specify controlled substance] within 1,000 feet of the [schoolyard] [campus] of a [school] [college] [university] in violation of Sections 841(a)(1), 846 and 860 of Title 21 of the United States Code. In order for the defendant to be found guilty of that charge, the government must prove each of the following elements beyond a reasonable doubt:

First, the defendant intended to distribute [specify controlled substance] to another person in, on, or within 1,000 feet of the [schoolyard] [campus] of [name of school];

Second, the defendant knew that it was [specify controlled substance] or some other prohibited drug; and

Third, the defendant did something that was a substantial step toward committing the crime.

Mere preparation is not a substantial step toward the commission of the crime of distribution of [specify controlled substance] in or near a school. To constitute a substantial step, a defendant’s act or actions must demonstrate that the crime will take place unless interrupted by independent circumstances

"Distribution" means delivery or transfer of possession of [specify controlled substance] to another person, with or without any financial interest in that transaction.

Comment

See Comment to Instructions 9.15 (Controlled SubstancePossession with Intent to Distribute), 9.16 (Determining Amount of Controlled Substance) and 9.23 (Controlled SubstanceDistribution In or Near a School).

Jurors do not need to agree unanimously as to which particular act or actions constituted a substantial step toward the commission of a crime. United States v. Hofus, 598 F.3d 1171, 1176 (9th Cir.2010).