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2.7 Transcript of Recording in English

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You are about to [hear] [watch] a recording that has been received in evidence. A transcript of the recording is being provided to help you identify speakers and to help you decide what the speakers say. Remember that the recording is the evidence, not the transcript. If you hear something different from what appears in the transcript, what you heard is controlling. Listen carefully; the transcript will not be available during your deliberations.


See United States v. Franco, 136 F.3d 622, 626 (9th Cir.1998).

The Committee recommends that this instruction be given immediately before a recording is played so that the jury is alerted to the fact that what they hear is controlling. It need not be repeated if more than one recording is played. However, the judge should remind the jury that the recording and not the transcript is the evidence and that they should disregard anything in the transcript that they do not hear. If the instruction is also to be given as part of the closing instructions, it should be modified appropriately.